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We are big admirers of J. Turners work in oil and watercolor, especially his magnificent, ethereal watercolor paintings. In a famous exchange between Turner and William Winsor, of Winsor Newton, on the topic of color permanence of the pigments he was buying, Turner is said to have told Mr. Winsor to mind his own business. The fading nature of his pigments is especially striking in the reds the artist would use. Although there were some permanent reds available to the artist, the brilliant, vivid reds that Turner loved to use in his sunsets have almost all turned fugitive, significantly losing richness over time.
|San Giorgio Maggiore at Dawn by J.M.W. Turner, watercolor painting, 1819.|
Before the invention of aniline dyes derived from coal tar in 1859 and cadmium red in 1907 to expand this section of the color wheel, there were only a handful of red pigments available to artists. Red ochre is probably the oldest of those, and is the red commonly found in cave art. (See The Color of Provence.) The ancient world also had red madder lake, artificially made red lead, and vermilion (natural mineral cinnabar). Cinnabar is a type of red mercury ore (still mined today) that was mixed with an equal amount of burning sulphur to create an expensive red paint that was very popular with the Romans as a cosmetic and for decorations. Today, a safer, polymer resin-based pigment is used instead of the toxic cinnabar.
|The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last Berth|
to be broken up, 1838 by J.M.W. Turner, oil on canvas, 36 x 48, 1839.
As for the reds in Turners color schemes, ochre, madder, vermilion and carmine lake were the ones he was most fond of. There are two varieties of carmine lake (cochineal lake and kermes lake), both produced from the bodies of insects. Cochineal lake comes from the blood of the cochineal beetle, which is native to the Americas and was discovered by the Aztecs. The beetle feeds on prickly pear cacti, eventually covering the plant with a wooly white mass that the Aztecs harvested and processed into dyes and paints. The Spanish Conquistadors brought this new color to Europe in the 16th century and maintained a monopoly on the secret source and supply of the pigment for centuries. Carmine lake, from cochineal blood, is still used today in cosmetics and foods, notably the red color for Cherry Coke. Kermes lake also comes from an insect that lives on certain species of European oaks. Workers scraped off the insects, which are then processed into a powerful scarlet dye.
Turners most notable and tragic selection of a red pigment was made during the oil painting of The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last Berth to be broken up, 1838. In this, perhaps his most famous painting, which he referred to as my darling, he used a relatively new, but very fugitive, iodine scarlet to create the vivid, moody sky. Why? It had been known for at least 23 years prior that this same color fades drastically when exposed to light, yet Turner persisted in using it to get immediate effects at the sacrifice of longevity. By 1859, the staff at the National Gallery in London noted that the red sky of the painting was fading away, and today we are left to imagine what once was. Was he right to satisfy himself at the risk of permanence in his work? Leave a comment and let us know what you think.
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Sources: Color: A Natural History of the Palette by Victoria Finlay; WebExhibits.org